Hypothyroidism can result from this lesion. Although not a hereditary disease, it has a frequent family association. Other causes of hypothyroidism are iodine deficiency, radiation, surgery, the use of certain drugs or a congenital malformation – congenital hypothyroidism.
Your signs and symptoms may be nonspecific. The most frequent ones are: fatigue, increased sensitivity to cold, hair loss, dry skin, weight gain, edema, muscle weakness, depression, constipation, menstrual irregularities.
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is made through the determination of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and T4 in the blood. It is a simple and inexpensive dosing. Treatment consists of the daily intake of the hormone T4 (levothyroxine). In the body it is converted into T3. It is an effective treatment provided at the right dose, and is usually for a lifetime. The dose of levothyroxine can be adjusted by the measurement of TSH in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism may also be of autoimmune (Graves' disease), but in this case the gland is stimulated to produce excess thyroid hormones. Other possible causes are the appearance of nodules that autonomously produce excess hormones or the action of certain drugs in the thyroid.
People complain of changes in mood, irritability, agitation, unexplained weight loss despite increased appetite, tremor, hypersudoresis, heat intolerance, palpitations, diarrhea, menstrual irregularities, increased cervical volume (goiter).
Treatment begins with the taking of an anti thyroid drug that reduces the synthesis of hormones by the thyroid. It is a more complicated treatment than that of hypothyroidism and the dose of the drug should be titrated periodically. In some cases there is recurrence of the disease and it is necessary to resort to a more definitive treatment such as surgery to remove the gland or treatment with Radioactive Iodine (Iodine 131), which limits its functioning. After definitive treatment hypothyroidism usually arises.
Hyperthyroidism can be a serious condition and requires immediate treatment by a specialist physician experienced in the treatment of thyroid dysfunctions.
The recommendations are from the doctor Maria João Oliveira, endocrinologist of the Hospital Center of Vila Nova de Gaia / Espinho.